Open & Closed Die Forgings

Open & Closed Die Forgings Manufacturers

Open and closed die forging has been a prominent part of the forging technology. Let’s have a look at each one of these processes one by one:

Open Die Forgings

Open die forging is a technique for shaping the heated metal parts between multiple dies. It is also known as Smith Forging. Usually a top die is attached to a ram, and the bottom die to a hammer or anvil. Various metal parts are worked upon as per their temperature which varies from 500°F to 2400°F; and then are shaped into desired design. Open-die forging gets its name from the fact that the dies (the surfaces that are in contact with the work piece) do not enclose the work piece, allowing it to flow except where contacted by the dies. Open die forging is mostly used for designing larger and simpler shaped parts like blanks, hollows, spindles or rings.

A unique feature of this technique is that metal is never completely confined or restrained in the dies. Also, there is some science involved in this process. As the metal is formed; its porosity gets eliminated. Continuous grain flow is also achieved which gives strength to the metal.

Following are some of the benefits of open die forging:

  • It saves material cost, labor and time which usually get wasted in cutting a solid bar or plate to form a shape.
  • It also provides a combination of strength, toughness and fatigue resistance due to better grain flow
  • Strength of the grain structure is increased during the deformation process
  • Enhances the mechanical properties, structural integrity and product reliability.

There are also some limitations to this technique which are as follows:

  • It is difficult to achieve close tolerance for the high precision parts
  • Additional machining is required post forging to achieve the desired dimension.

Closed Die Forgings

Closed die forgingis a metal forming process that compresses a piece of metal under high pressure to fill an enclosed die impression or cavity. In some closed die forging processes, a succession of impression dies are used to change the shape of the material into the final desired form. For some special shapes, second forging operation is required to reach finalshapes and dimensions. The type of material, tightness of tolerances, and need for heat treatment can determine the cost of a closed die forged part.

So how is it different from open die forging?

Unlike open die forging which does not enclose the work piece; closed die forging encloses the entire work piece or major part of it in some cases to cover it completely. The closed die structure also gives better surface finish and is economical for large production runs. Also, it requires almost no machining for its close tolerances.

Although close die forging has its own advantages; there are some limitations to this technique.

  • It is not very economical for short runs due to the high cost of die production
  • Closed die forging process requires a careful and skillful operation of equipment.

As we talk about the ever changing forging technology; we notice that the open and closed die forging has been growing especially in the regions like: North America, India, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, and Japan. The production, revenue, consumption, imports and export of forging has growth multifold in the above regions.

While catering to such a large set of clients spread across multiple geographical locations; and delivering in various industries; one important aspect is quality control and management. To be a noticeable forging firm; one needs to be super expert in delivering quality product with precision within the stipulated time. Indian forging firms like Emerson Forge have implemented a quality management system in line with the ISO 9001: 2015 and IATF 16949 standards to make sure that quality control is taken care of at each segment of the process.

Emerson forge has taken quality management as a critical element in the forging process due to the following reasons:

  • Quality control ensures that the products are manufactured to precision and as per the client requirement
  • Helps the firm in adhering to the best practices in each segment of process
  • Helps save time, energy and resources by eliminating any wastes.
  • Optimizes the overall efficiency of resources and machines.

Emerson forge caters to some of the major industries like agriculture, automotive, construction, power generation and transmission, marine, petrochemical, and other industries. A one stop solution to cater to all your forging needs.

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